Define hyperglycemia: Hyperglycemia is the technical term we use to refer to high blood sugar levels. High blood glucose occurs when the body does not have enough insulin or when the amount of insulin is very low. Hyperglycemia also occurs when the body cannot use insulin properly.
There are many things that can cause hyperglycemia:
If you have type 1 diabetes, you may not have injected enough insulin.
If you have type 2 diabetes, your body may have enough insulin, but it’s not as effective as it should be.
The problem may be that you ate more than planned or performed less physical activity than scheduled.
Stress that causes a condition, such as a cold or flu, could also be the cause.
Other stress classes, such as family conflicts, school problems, or partner problems, may also cause hyperglycemia.
You may have experienced the dawn phenomenon (an increase in hormones that your body produces daily around 04 a.m.-05 a.m.).
Video Hyperglycemia – Causes, symptoms and treatment of hyperglycemia
Signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia
Signs and symptoms include:
High blood sugar,
High levels of sugar in the urine,
Frequent need to urinate.
Frequently measuring your blood sugar level is one of the preventive steps you can take to keep diabetes under control.
Talk to your doctor how often you should monitor your doctor and what your blood glucose levels should be.
To avoid other symptoms of hyperglycemia, you need to monitor and treat high blood sugar levels without wasting time.
It is important to treat hyperglycemia as soon as it is detected. If you don’t, you may have a condition called ketoacidosis (diabetic coma). Ketoacidosis develops when the body does not have enough insulin. Without insulin, the body cannot use glucose as fuel. Therefore, the body breaks down fats (lipids) to use as energy.
When the body breaks down fats, residual products called ketones appear. The body does not tolerate large amounts of ketones and tries to remove them through urine.
Unfortunately, the body cannot get rid of all ketones and therefore accumulate in the blood. As a result, a picture of ketoacidosis may occur.
Ketoacidosis can lead to death and requires immediate treatment. Symptoms include:
Nausea and vomiting
Very dry mouth
Talk to your doctor about how to manage this condition.
How is hyperglycemia treated?
Physical activity usually helps lower blood glucose levels. However, if your sugar level is above 240 mg/dL, you need to check your urine for ketones. If ketones are present in your urine, DO NOT perform physical activity.
If you have ketones in your urine and exercise, your blood sugar level may rise further. It is important to consult with your doctor to find the safest way to lower your blood glucose level.
It may also be helpful to reduce the amount of food you eat. Check with your dietitian to make changes to your meal plan. If physical activity and dietary changes don’t work, your doctor may change the dose of medications or insulin you’re given or possibly the schedule at which insulin is injected.
Many people with diabetes, particularly those who use insulin, must have medical identification with them at all times.
In an emergency, such as an episode of hypoglycemia, a car accident, or any other type of emergency, medical identity can provide important information about a person’s health status, such as diabetes, whether or not they use insulin, whether or not they have an allergy to any medication or food, among other things.
Emergency personnel are trained to look for such information as soon as they care for a patient who cannot speak for themselves.
Medical IDs are usually used as bracelets or necklaces. Traditional IDs have recorded health information about the person and some include USB memory that contains all the patient’s medical information.
How is hyperglycemia prevented?
The best option is to keep track of diabetes. The key is to learn how to detect and treat hyperglycemia in time… before it gets worse.
Causes of hyperglycemia
High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) affects people who have diabetes. There are several factors that can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, including choosing food and physical activity, diseases, medications unrelated to diabetes, or skipping or not taking enough medications to lower glucose.
It is important to treat hyperglycemia, otherwise it can worsen and lead to serious complications that require emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. In the long run, persistent hyperglycemia, even if it’s not severe, can cause complications in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart.
Managing diabetes is like triple juggling because you should consider the following three things:
medications you take (insulin and/or diabetes pills)
the foods you eat
how much exercise you do
These three things must be well balanced. If any of them decompensated, the same can happen with your blood sugar concentration. Excess blood sugar can usually be caused by:
don’t take diabetes medications when you should take them or not take them at the right dosages
not properly following your diabetes eating plan (such as overeating on a special occasion without adjusting the doses of diabetes medications)
not do enough physical exercise
having a disease, such as the flu
take other types of medications that have an impact on the effects of diabetes medications.
Avoid hyperglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis
Because they take care of themselves, people with diabetes will sometimes have high blood sugar. But the best way to avoid problems is to keep blood sugar concentrations as close to normal as possible, which means following your diabetes control plan to the letter. By measuring your blood sugar concentration several times a day, you’ll know when it’s too high. Then you can treat it and help prevent diabetic ketoacidosis.
Hyperglycemia doesn’t always cause symptoms, and a diabetic person who isn’t often measuring blood sugar concentration may be having high enough sugar concentrations to harm his body even without realizing it. Doctors may use the glycosylated hemoglobin test (abbreviated as HbA1c) to find out if a person has been having high blood sugar concentrations for a while, even if they have not had clear symptoms of hyperglycemia.
Here are some other tips to avoid high blood sugar concentrations and prevent diabetic ketoacidosis:
Try to make the main meals and snacks at the right times and don’t skip any.
Inject the right amount of insulin.
Measure your blood sugar concentration often, and your concentration of ketones when recommended by your diabetes control plan.
Follow your diabetes control plan to the letter.
Consequences of hyperglycemia
Having too much blood sugar for long periods of time can cause serious health problems if not treated. Hyperglycemia can damage blood vessels that carry blood to vital organs, which can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, eye problems and neurological problems.
These problems do not usually affect children or adolescents who have had diabetes for a few years. But they may appear in the adult stage in some people with diabetes, especially if they have not been treated or have not controlled their disease well.
Blood sugar concentrations are considered high when they are above the reference margins considered normal. The medical team that carries your diabetes will tell you what those margins are for you in particular.
Emergency treatment of hyperglycemia
Consequently, the glycaemic control objectives indicated above can only be achieved by IV or subcutaneous insulin treatment. Insulin is currently considered the most effective drug of choice to treat hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients.